Publications

Publications

Characterising climate change discourse on social media during extreme weather events
Global Environmental Change | November 28, 2018
When extreme weather events occur, people often turn to social media platforms to share information, opinions and experiences. One of the topics commonly discussed is the role climate change may or may not have played in influencing an event. Here, we examine Twitter posts that mentioned climate change in the context of three high-magnitude extreme weather events – Hurricane Irene, Hurricane Sandy and Snowstorm Jonas – in order to assess how the framing of the topic and the attention paid to it can vary between events.


City-level water-energy nexus in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region
Applied Energy | November 13, 2018
Water-energy nexus in a city can either prompt or undermine its development. Yet in China, the relevant research is rarely found. This study accounts the city-level water-energy nexus in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region in 2012 from both production and consumption perspectives, where input-output analysis based on city-level input-output tables are applied to conduct consumption-based accounts.


Life-cycle water uses for energy consumption of Chinese households from 2002 to 2015
Journal of Environmental Management | November 12, 2018
China's household energy demands' life-cycle water uses from 2002 to 2015 are quantified with an Input-Output analysis disaggregating rural and urban impacts. 9.73 and 1.60 km3 of water was withdrawn and consumed respectively in the life cycle of Chinese household energy demands in 2015, which was dominated by power and heat uses. An average urbanite's household energy uses, including coal, gas, petroleum products, power and heat, require about four times of life-cycle water uses than its rural counterpart.


Loss of work productivity in a warming world: Differences between developed and developing countries
Applied Energy | November 09, 2018
Carbon emission inventories are the foundations of climate change mitigation and adaptation in cities. In this study, we estimated production-based CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and industrial processes in eleven cities in Hebei Province of China in 2012 and used input-output theory to measure their consumption-based CO2 emissions. By comprehensively comparing production- and consumption-based emissions, we found that six developed cities were consumers with import-depended trade patterns.


Loss of work productivity in a warming world: Differences between developed and developing countries
Energy Economics | October 24, 2018
In recent years, evaluating the emissions embodied in trade (EEIT) has become an important area of policy and research. Multiregional input-output (MRIO) analysis, which links producers and final consumers, is a widely-used method for quantifying the EEIT. However, the role of intermediate trade in driving changes in the EEIT is still not fully incorporated in MRIO analysis and as a result poorly understood. Here, we present a framework that separately identifies the drivers of the emissions embodied in the trade of final and intermediate products.


Loss of work productivity in a warming world: Differences between developed and developing countries
Journal of Cleaner Production | October 09, 2018
Comparable estimates of the heat-related work productivity loss (WPL) in different countries over the world are difficult partly due to the lack of exact measures and comparable data for different counties. In this study, we analysed 4363 responses to a global online survey on the WPL during heat waves in 2016. The participants were from both developed and developing countries, facilitating estimates of the heat-related WPL across the world for the year.


Cities: the core of climate change mitigation
Journal of Cleaner Production | October 06, 2018
Cities, the core of the global climate change mitigation and strategic low-carbon development, are shelters to more than half of the world population and responsible for three quarters of global energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG). This special volume (SV) provides a platform that promotes multi- and inter- disciplinary analyses and discussions on the climate change mitigation for cities.


Temporal change in India’s imbalance of carbon emissions embodied in international trade
Applied Energy | September 27, 2018
In India, rapid industrialization and reorganization of the global supply chain are driving economic growth, accompanied by increasing exports and carbon emissions. India is poised to succeed China as the next world manufactory, which will lead to huge emissions in the country. To formulate appropriate emission mitigation measures, it is necessary to further understand the temporal change in India’s emissions at the sectoral level from both the production and consumption perspectives.


Assessment of the pollution–health–economics nexus in China
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics | October 09, 2018
Serious haze can cause contaminant diseases that trigger productive labour time by raising mortality and morbidity rates in cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Health studies rarely consider macroeconomic impacts of industrial interlinkages while disaster studies seldom involve air pollution and its health consequences. This study adopts a supply-driven input–output model to estimate the economic loss resulted from disease-induced working-time reduction across 30 Chinese provinces in 2012 using the most updated Chinese multiregional input–output table.


Distinguishing Emission-Associated Ambient Air PM2. 5 Concentrations and Meteorological Factor-Induced Fluctuations
Environmental science & technology | August 17, 2018
Although PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters less than 2.5 μm) in the air originates from emissions, its concentrations are often affected by confounding meteorological effects. Therefore, direct comparisons of PM2.5 concentrations made across two periods, which are commonly used by environmental protection administrations to measure the effectiveness of mitigation efforts, can be misleading.


Emissions and low-carbon development in Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area cities and their surroundings
Applied energy | July 18, 2018
Cities are the major contributors to energy consumption and CO2 emissions, as well as being leading innovators and implementers of policy measures in climate change mitigation. Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area (GBA) is an agglomeration of cities put forward by China to strengthen international cooperation among “Belt and Road” countries and promote low-carbon, inclusive, coordinated and sustainable development. Few studies have discussed the emission characteristics of GBA cities.


Integrating Sustainability Into City-level CO2 Accounting: Social Consumption Pattern and Income Distribution
Ecological Economics | July 05, 2018
From a sustainability perspective, city-level CO2 emissions require reconsiderations. Correspondingly, the economy-environment-society nexus should be incorporated into city-scale CO2 accounting. Therefore, in this study, the semi-closed IO model is integrated with a HEM to calculate CO2 emissions arising from the social consumption pattern and income distribution, and to explore economic drivers behind CO2 variations. This method is applied to a case study of Beijing.


Estimating household air pollution exposures and health impacts from space heating in rural China
Environment international | June 27, 2018
Exposure to and the related burden of diseases caused by pollution from solid fuel cooking, known as household air pollution (HAP), has been incorporated in the assessment of the Global Burden of Diseases (GBD) project. In contrast, HAP from space heating using solid fuels, prevalent in countries at middle or high altitudes, is less studied and missing from the GBD assessment. China is an ideal example to estimate the bias of exposure and burden of diseases assessment when space heating is neglected, considering its remarkably changing demands for heating from the north to the south and a large solid-fuel-dependent rural population.


China's energy consumption in the new normal
Earth's Future | June 15, 2018
Energy consumption is one of main reasons for global warming and highly correlated with economic development. As the largest energy consumer worldwide, China has entered a new economic development model—the “new normal.” This study aims to explore the pattern shift in China's energy consumption growth in this new development phase. We use structural decomposition analysis and environmentally extended input‐output analysis to decompose China's energy consumption changes during 2005–2012 into five factors: population, efficiency, production structure, consumption patterns, and consumption volume.


Rapid growth of petroleum coke consumption and its related emissions in China
Applied Energy | June 14, 2018
Petroleum coke, a non-environmentally friendly energy source, is gradually replacing other power fuels in China’s industrial enterprises because of its price advantage. Petroleum coke has high emission factors and thus emits more greenhouse gases (GHGs) and air pollutants than even raw coal. This study first examines the rapid growth of petroleum coke consumption in China since 2010 by industry sector and region and then estimates the petroleum coke-related emissions.


Categorising virtual water transfers through China’s electric power sector
Applied Energy | June 04, 2018
Water consumption in thermoelectric and hydropower plants in China increased from 1.6 and 6.1 billion m3, respectively, to 3.8 and 14.6 billion m3 from 2002 to 2010. Using the concept of virtual water, we attribute to different electricity users the total water consumption by the electric power sector. From 2002 to 2010, virtual water embodied in the final consumption of electricity (hereinafter referred to as VWEF) increased from 1.90 to 7.35 billion m3, whilst virtual water in electricity used by industries (hereinafter referred to as VWEI) increased from 5.82 to 11.13 billion m3.


The global CO2 emission cost of geographic shifts in international sourcing
Energy Economics | May 18, 2018
In this paper we simulated the global direct CO2 emission cost of geographic shift of international sourcing for the period 1995–2011 by comparing the scenarios with and without geographic shift. Our simulations indicate that in 2011, had the share of trade by the sourcing economy remained at the level of 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2008 whereas the global final demand remained the same, global CO2 emissions in production processes would have been 2.8 Gt, 2.0 Gt, 1.3 Gt, and 540 Mt., respectively, lower than the actual emissions.


Energy and carbon intensity: A study on the cross-country industrial shift from China to India and SE Asia
Applied Energy | May 14, 2018
The potential relocation of various industrial sectors from China to India and countries of the SE Asian region presents low cost opportunities for manufacturers, but also risks rising for energy demand and CO2 emissions. A cross-country shift of industrial output would present challenges for controlling emissions since India and SE Asian countries present higher industrial emissions intensity than China. We find that although there is a convergence in emissions intensity in the machinery manufacturing and paper and pulp industries, there are significant variations in all other industrial sectors.


Estimating perfluorocarbon emission factors for industrial rare earth metal electrolysis
Resources, Conservation and Recycling | May 11, 2018
Rare earth (RE) metals have been widely applied in new materials, leading to their drastic production increase in the last three decades. In the production process featured by the molten-fluoride electrolysis technology, perfluorocarbon (PFC) emissions are significant and therefore deserve full accounting in greenhouse gas (GHG) emission inventories. Yet, in the ‘2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories’, no method currently exists to account for PFC emissions from rare earth metal production.


exported carbon” peak: patterns, drivers, and implications
Geophysical Research Letters | April 24, 2018
Over the past decade, China has entered a “new normal” phase in economic development, with its role in global trade flows changing significantly. This study estimates the driving forces of Chinese export‐embodied carbon emissions in the new normal phase, based on environmentally extended multiregional input‐output modeling and structural decomposition analysis. We find that Chinese export‐embodied CO2 emissions peaked in 2008 at a level of 1,657 million tones. The subsequent decline in CO2 emissions was mainly due to the changing structure of Chinese production.


Origin and Radiative Forcing of Black Carbon Aerosol: Production and Consumption Perspectives
Environmental science & technology | April 24, 2018
Air pollution, a threat to air quality and human health, has attracted ever-increasing attention in recent years. In addition to having local influence, air pollutants can also travel the globe via atmospheric circulation and international trade. Black carbon (BC), emitted from incomplete combustion, is a unique but representative particulate pollutant. This study tracked down the BC aerosol and its direct radiative forcing to the emission sources and final consumers using the global chemical transport model (MOZART-4), the rapid radiative transfer model for general circulation simulations (RRTM), and a multiregional input–output analysis (MRIO).


The comprehensive environmental efficiency of socioeconomic sectors in China: An analysis based on a non-separable bad output SBM
Journal of Cleaner Production | March 1, 2018
The increasingly high frequency of heavy air pollution in most regions of China signals the urgent need for the transition to an environmentally friendly production performance by socioeconomic sectors for the sake of people's health and sustainable development. Focusing on CO2 and major air pollutants, this paper presents a comprehensive environmental efficiency index based on evaluating the environmental efficiency of major socioeconomic sectors, including agriculture, power, industry.


A review of air pollution impact on subjective well-being: Survey versus visual psychophysics
Journal of Cleaner Production | February 27, 2018
Air pollution is a worldwide environmental and health issue, especially in major developing countries. A recent World Health Organization report shows about 3 million deaths in the world in 2012 are due to ambient air pollution and China and India are the countries with the most severe challenge. Air pollution influences people's thought and experience of their lives directly by visual perceptions. This reduces people's subjective well-being (SWB) to a significant degree. Empirical researchers have made efforts to examine how self-reported well-being varies with air quality typically by survey method - matching SWB data with monitored air pollution data.


How modifications of China's energy data affect carbon mitigation targets
Energy Policy
| February 24, 2018
Frequent modifications to energy statistics have led to considerable uncertainty in China's ability to achieve its carbon mitigation targets. Here, we quantitatively measure the impact of energy data revisions on China's ability to achieve its mitigation targets. Our results indicate the following effects of data revisions: 1. Mitigation challenges have increased by 5%, and the achievement of national mitigation targets (as well as international pledges) might be postponed by two years. 2. Greater than expected carbon space or emission quota (from 22.94 to 31.31 Gt) will be obtained from 2015 to 2035.


Carbon emission imbalances and the structural paths of Chinese regions
Applied Energy
| February 20, 2018
As the Chinese regions become more and more connected to each other and foreign countries, this study aims to address carbon imbalance and outsourcing issues in China. Using a production-based carbon emission inventory and a China-global multi-regional input-output model, this study estimates the consumption-based carbon emissions in 30 Chinese regions in 2007 and 2010. Our results reveal that the carbon imbalances of most Chinese provinces and cities have decreased between 2007 and 2010, but disparities in the regional per capita carbon footprint have widened. 


Reconciling discrepancies in the source characterization of VOCs
Science of The Total Environment
| February 20, 2018
By utilizing a highly resolved speciated regional EI and a region-wide gridded volatile organic compounds (VOCs) speciation measurement campaign, we elucidated underlying factors for discrepancies between EI and RM and proposed ways for their interpretations with the aim to achieve a scientifically plausible source identification. Results showed that numbers of species, temporal and spatial resolutions used for comparison, photochemical loss of reactive species, potential missing sources in EI and tracers used in RM were important factors contributed to the discrepancies.


Multi-objective analysis of the co-mitigation of CO2 and PM2.5 pollution by China's iron and steel industry
Journal of Cleaner Production
| February 16, 2018
The simultaneous reduction of CO2 emissions and PM2.5 pollution while minimizing the total mitigation costs remains a crucial issue that must be resolved. Using a multi-objective analysis, we compared potential technology combinations based on various policy preferences and targets. Our results showed that policies designed to mitigate PM2.5 pollution have substantial co-benefits for CO2 emissions reductions.


The spatiotemporal features of greenhouse gases emissions from biomass burning in China from 2000 to 2012
Journal of Cleaner Production
| February 03, 2018
Greenhouse gases emissions from biomass burning have been given a little attention, especially the spatiotemporal features of biomass burning sources and greenhouse gases emissions have not been comprehensively uncovered. This research undertook IPCC bottom-up inventory guideline to estimate Chinese greenhouse gases emissions from biomass burning and applied geographical information system to reveal biomass burning emissions spatiotemporal features. The purposes were to quantify greenhouse gases emissions from various biomass burning sources in China.


Patterns of CO2 emissions in 18 central Chinese cities from 2000 to 2014
Journal of Cleaner Production
| January 20, 2018
With the Rise of Central China Plan, the central region has had a great opportunity to develop its economy and improve its original industrial structure. However, this region is also under pressure to protect its environment, keep its development sustainable and reduce carbon emissions. Therefore, accurately estimating the temporal and spatial dynamics of CO2 emissions and analysing the factors influencing these emissions are especially important. 


China CO2 emission accounts 1997–2015
Scientific Data
| January 16, 2018
China is the world’s top energy consumer and CO2 emitter, accounting for 30% of global emissions. Compiling an accurate accounting of China’s CO2 emissions is the first step in implementing reduction policies. However, no annual, officially published emissions data exist for China. The current emissions estimated by academic institutes and scholars exhibit great discrepancies. The gap between the different emissions estimates is approximately equal to the total emissions of the Russian Federation (the 4th highest emitter globally) in 2011. 


Local strategies for China's carbon mitigation
Journal of Cleaner Production | January 08, 2018
This paper provides a systematic analysis that identifies the driving forces of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions of 286 Chinese prefecture-level cities in 2012. The regression analysis confirms the economic scale and structure effects on cities' CO2 emissions in China. If China's annual economic growth continues at the rate of 7%, CO2 emissions will increase by about 6% annually. In addition, climate conditions, urbanization and public investment in R&D are identified as important driving forces to increase the CO2 emissions of Chinese cities.


Chinese CO2 emission flows have reversed
Nature Communication | November 23, 2017
we show that emission flow patterns have changed greatly in both domestic and foreign trade since the financial crisis. Some economically less developed regions, such as Southwest China, have shifted from being a net emission exporter to being a net emission importer. In terms of foreign trade, emissions embodied in China’s exports declined from 2007 to 2012 mainly due to changes in production structure and efficiency gains, , while developing countries became the major destination of China’s export emissions.


Assessment of the economic impacts of heat waves 
Journal of Cleaner Production
| October 09, 2017
Extreme heat can not only induce health outcomes in terms of excess mortality and morbidity (hospital admissions) but can also cause productivity losses for self-paced indoor workers and capacity losses for outdoor workers due to occupational safety requirements. All of these effects can be translated into productive working time losses, thus creating a need to investigate the macroeconomic implications of heat waves on production supply chains. Indeed, industrial interdependencies are important for capturing the cascading effects of initial changes in factor inputs.


Flood footprint of the 2007 floods in the UK
Journal of Cleaner Production | September 09, 2017
International headlines over the last few years have been dominated by extreme weather events, and floods have been amongst the most frequent and devastating. These disasters represent high costs and functional disruptions to societies and economies. The consequent breakdown of the economic equilibrium exacerbates the losses of the initial physical damages and generates indirect costs that largely amplify the burden of the total damage. Neglecting indirect damages results in misleading results regarding the real dimensions of the costs and prevents accurate decision-making.


Energy and emission in Tibet and cites
Earth Future | August 09, 2017
Tibet Autonomous Region has historically been excluded from China's reported energy statistics, including those regarding CO2 emissions. In this paper, we estimate Tibet's energy consumption using limited online documents, and we calculate the 2014 energy-related and process-related COemissions of Tibet and its seven prefecture-level administrative divisions for the first time. 


Global emission growth after international crisis 
Energy Policy
 | August 04, 2017

In this paper, we decompose the driving forces of global CO2 emissions for the post-crisis era 2008–2011 from both production-based and consumption-based aspects. The results suggest that non-OECD economies have become the major drivers for the rapid global growth of CO2 emissions after the crisis. The increasing consumption and investment of non-OECD economies,  have largely contributed to global growth of CO2 emissions after 2009.


Consumption based water resources accounts
Journal of Cleaner Production | June 19, 2017
This work develops a method of multi-scale input-output analysis for the embodied water accounting of an economy. This method can distinguish between the different virtual water contents of imported and local products and is therefore capable of estimating the virtual water that is embodied in trade. As a simplified model, this method substantially minimizes the data requirements. With the support of averaged Eora global embodied water intensity databases for the world and Chinese economies, a three-scale embodied water input-output analysis of the Beijing economy in 2007 has been conducted. 


City level emission accounts: method and application
Journal of Cleaner Production
 | June 14, 2017

Cities contribute 85% of the total CO2 emissions in China and thus are considered as the key areas for implementing policies designed for climate change adaption and CO2 emission mitigation. However, the emission inventory construction of Chinese cities has not been well researched, mainly owing to the lack of systematic statistics and poor data quality. Focusing on this research gap, we developed a set of methods for constructing CO2 emissions inventories for Chinese cities based on energy balance table.  


Demand-driven air pollution in Guangdong
Applied Energy | July 11, 2017
Guangdong is one of many fast-developing regions in China that are confronting the challenges of air pollution mitigation and sustainable economic development. In this study, we used environmentally extended input-output analysis with well-established production-based emission inventories to develop a consumption-based emission inventory for seven pollutants in the years 2007 and 2012. 


Pattern changes in determinants of Chinese emissions
Environmental Research Letters | March 29, 2017
Chinese economy has been recovering slowly from the global financial crisis, but it cannot achieve the same rapid development of the pre-recession period. Instead, the country has entered a new phase of economic development – a "new normal". We use a structural decomposition analysis (SDA) and environmental input-output analysis (IOA) to estimate the determinants of China's carbon emission changes during 2005-2012.  


Performance of China’s Emission-Trading Scheme
Engineering | February 28, 2017
China recently announced the launch of a nation-wide emission-trading scheme (ETS) starting in 2017 in order to help deliver its emission peak by 2030. A number of climate policies in China are ongoing, and require a full performance review, effective coordination, and appropriate implementation of planning and monitoring measures along with any newly added mechanisms.


Consumption-based black carbon of China's cities
Journal of Cleaner Production | February 27, 2017
We calculate the production-based and consumption-based emissions in 2012 in four Chinese megacities: Beijing, Shanghai, Tianjin and Chongqing. The results show that capital formation is the largest contributor, accounting for 37%–69% of consumption-based emissions. Approximately 44% of BC emissions related to goods consumed in Chongqing and more than 60% for Beijing, Shanghai and Tianjin occur outside of the city boundary.


Variations of China's emission estimates
Atmospheric Physics and Chemistry | January 25, 2017
The accuracy of China’s energy statistics is of great concern because it contributes greatly to the uncertainties in estimates of global emissions. This study attempts to improve the understanding of uncertainties in China’s energy statistics and evaluate their impacts on China’s emissions during the period of 1990–2013. The discrepancies between the national and provincial energy statistics were reduced after the three economic censuses conducted during this period, and converging uncertainties were found in 2013.


Multiple disasters management: Lessons from the Fukushima triple events
Economic Analysis and Policy | January 07, 2016
It has been five and a half years since the Great East Japan Earthquake (GEJE) in March 2011. This study summarize management and policy lessons from the GEJE. The recovery efforts that followed the triple disasters: the earthquake, tsunami and meltdown of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear plant are in progress. The experience of the GEJE and tsunami prompted the building of embankments throughout the Pacific coastal side of the Tohoku region. The Cabinet’s Reconstruction Headquarters used at least 19 trillion yen ($158 billion) for intensive reconstruction over five years through 2015.


Global carbon uptake by cement carbonation
Nature Geoscience
 | November 21, 2016

Calcination of carbonate rocks during the manufacture of cement produced 5% of global CO2emissions from all industrial process and fossil-fuel combustion in 2013. Here, we use new and existing data on cement materials during cement service life, demolition, and secondary use of concrete waste to estimate regional and global COuptake between 1930 and 2013 using an analytical model describing carbonation chemistry. We find that carbonation of cement materials over their life cycle represents a large and growing net sink of CO2, increasing from 0.10 GtC yr−1 in 1998 to 0.25 GtC yr−1 in 2013.


Income-Based Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Nations
Environmental Science and Technology | December 09, 2016
Income-based accounting method reveals new GHG emission profiles for nations and sectors. The rapid development of mining industries drives income-based GHG emissions of resource-exporting nations (e.g., Australia, Canada, and Russia) during 1995–2009. Moreover, the rapid development of sectors producing basic materials and providing financial intermediation services drives income-based GHG emissions of developing nations. 

Global carbon uptake by cement carbonation
Nature Geoscience
 | November 21, 2016

Calcination of carbonate rocks during the manufacture of cement produced 5% of global CO2emissions from all industrial process and fossil-fuel combustion in 2013. Here, we use new and existing data on cement materials during cement service life, demolition, and secondary use of concrete waste to estimate regional and global COuptake between 1930 and 2013 using an analytical model describing carbonation chemistry.


Carbon emissions of Beijing in 2012
Environmental Research Letters | November 17, 2016
Income-based accounting method reveals new GHG emission profiles for nations and sectors. The rapid development of mining industries drives income-based GHG emissions of resource-exporting nations (e.g., Australia, Canada, and Russia) during 1995–2009. Moreover, the rapid development of sectors producing basic materials and providing financial intermediation services drives income-based GHG emissions of developing nations. 


Take responsibility for electronic-waste disposal
Nature
| August 03, 2016
The world is producing ever more electrical and electronic waste. The quantity of dumped computers, telephones, televisions and appliances doubled between 2009 and 2014, to 42 million tonnes per year globally. China processed about 70% of the world’s e-waste in 2012; the rest goes to India and other countries in eastern Asia and Africa, including Nigeria. Non-toxic components — such as iron, steel, copper and gold — are valuable, so are more frequently recycled than toxic ones.


Inter-regional trade flows in China
Journal of Geographical Sciences
| August 05, 2015
China has huge differences among its regions in terms of socio-economic development, industrial structure, natural resource endowments, and technological advancement. These differences have created complicated linkages between regions in China. In this study, building upon gravity model and location quotient techniques, we develop a sector-specific model to estimate inter-provincial trade flows, which is the base for making a multi-regional input-output table.


Consumption-based emission accounting for Chinese cities
Applied Energy 
| June 23, 2016
We employ an input-output model to calculate consumption-based CO2 emissions for thirteen Chinese cities and find substantial differences between production- and consumption-based accounting in terms of both overall and per capita carbon emissions. Urban consumption not only leads to carbon emissions within a city’s own boundaries but also induces emissions in other regions via interregional trade.


Electrical vehicles and emissions mitigation in China
Applied Energy
| June 11, 2016
Replacement of gasoline cars with EVs causes greater impacts on total gasoline production than on total electricity generation. The gasoline vehicle replacement with EVs, powered by 80% coal, has no effect on overall emissions. The CO2 emissions reduction in the petroleum sector is offset by the increase in CO2 emissions in the electricity sector, leaving the national CO2 emissions unchanged.


Socioeconomic Drivers of GHGs in the US
Environmental Science & Technology
 | June 08, 2016
This study investigates GHG emissions of sectors in the U.S. from production-based (direct emissions), consumption-based (upstream emissions driven by final consumption of products), and income-based (downstream emissions enabled by primary inputs of sectors) viewpoints. We also quantify relative contributions of socioeconomic factors to the US’s GHG emission changes during 1995–2009 from both the consumption and supply sides.


Driving forces of Chinese primary air pollution emissions
Journal of Cleaner Production
| May 11, 2016
This study provides an interdisciplinary study to investigate the key contributors driving air pollution emissions changes in China from 1997 to 2012, by applying the Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index method. The decomposition results are presented in both multiplicative and additive approaches to show the relative and absolute contribution of each factor in affecting emission changes. Changes in total particulate matter emissions are attributed to variations in primary particle, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides emissions.


Environment-economy tradeoff for Beijing regions
Applied Energy
 | April 19, 2016
The trade of goods among regions or nations associated with large environmental consequences. Yet balancing economic gains and environmental consequences induced by trade is still hindered by a lack of quantification of these two factors, especially for the environmental problems those are more locally oriented, such as the atmospheric pollution. Our results show that exports contributed 55–62% of BTH’s production emissions and 54% of its total value added.


New provincial CO2 emission inventories in China
Applied Energy
 | April 19, 2016
The study presents the changing emission-socioeconomic features of each provinces as well. The results indicate that Chinese provincial aggregated CO2 emissions calculated by the apparent energy consumption and updated emissions factors are coincident with the national emissions estimated by the same approach, which are 12.69% smaller than the one calculated by the traditional approach and IPCC default emission factors.


Revisiting global net emission transfers
Journal of Industrial Ecology
| March 11, 2016
processing exports in China involves relatively lower CO2 emissions than other production types for the same output levels. Therefore, if processing exports are not appropriately distinguished, net CO2 emission exports from China to other regions will be distorted; the relative bias occasionally reaches 15%. Net emission exports from regions other than China are also distorted, particularly for regions that use considerable Chinese processing exports.


Interprovincial Reliance for Improving Air Quality in China
Environmental Science & Technology
| March 07, 2016
The trade of goods among regions or nations associated with large environmental consequences. Yet balancing economic gains and environmental consequences induced by trade is still hindered by a lack of quantification of these two factors, especially for the environmental problems those are more locally oriented, such as the atmospheric pollution. Our results show that exports contributed 55–62% of BTH’s production emissions and 54% of its total value added.


Techno-economic drivers of CO2 emission changes
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews
| December 05, 2015
This paper extends the previous logarithmic mean Divisia index (LMDI) decomposition model by introducing three novel factors (R&D intensity, investment intensity, and R&D efficiency). The extended model not only considers the conventional drivers of energy-related industrial CO2 emissions, but also reflects the microeconomic effects of investment and R&D behaviors on emissions.


Air pollution and human health at Pearl River Delta
Environmental Research Letters
| October 08, 2015
Following a series of extreme air pollution events, the Chinese government released the Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan in 2013 (China's State Council 2013). The Action Plan sets clear goals for key regions (i.e. cities above the prefecture level, Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Province, the Yangtze River Delta and the Pearl River Delta) and establishes near-term control efforts for the next five years. However, the extent to which the Action Plan can direct local governments' activities on air pollution control remains unknown. 


Intercomparison of global MRIO databases
Economic Systems Research
| March 01, 2016
Global multiregional input–output (MRIO) tables constitute detailed accounts of the economic activity worldwide. Global trade models based on MRIO tables are being used to calculate important economic and environmental indicators such as value added in trade or the carbon footprint of nations. Such applications are highly relevant in international trade and climate policy negotiations, and consequently MRIO model results are being scrutinized for their accuracy and reproducibility.


China's export related emissions, and the responsibility issue
Energy Economics | August 28, 2015
China's CO2 emissions and those embodied in its exports have been extensively studied. One often neglected aspect is the prevalence of foreign-invested enterprises (FIEs) in China's exports, for which a substantial portion of benefits return to the investing countries. In this paper, we revisit China's export-related CO2 emission responsibilities by viewing them from a “new”, gross national income perspective.


Targeted opportunities to address the climate–trade dilemma in China
Nature Climate Change 
| September 28, 2015
International trade has become the fastest growing driver of global carbon emissions, with large quantities of emissions embodied in exports from emerging economies. International trade with emerging economies poses a dilemma for climate and trade policy: to the extent emerging markets have comparative advantages in manufacturing, such trade is economically efficient and desirable.



Reduced emission estimates in China
Nature | August 19, 2015
Estimates of Chinese emissions remain subject to large uncertainty; inventories of China’s total fossil fuel carbon emissions in 2008 differ by 0.3 gigatonnes of carbon, or 15 per cent. The primary sources of this uncertainty are conflicting estimates of energy consumption and emission factors. Here we re-evaluate China’s carbon emissions using updated and harmonized energy consumption and clinker production data and two new and comprehensive sets of measured emission factors for Chinese coal.


China’s rising hydropower demand challenges water sector
Scientific Reports
| July 09, 2015
Demand for hydropower is increasing, yet the water footprints (WFs) of reservoirs and hydropower, and their contributions to water scarcity, are poorly understood. Here, we calculate reservoir WFs (freshwater that evaporates from reservoirs) and hydropower WFs (the WF of hydroelectricity) in China based on data from 875 representative reservoirs (209 with power plants).


Steps to China’s carbon peak
Nature | June 17, 2015
In 2013, China released one-quarter of the global total of carbon dioxide for the year, and 1.5 times that released by the United States. It is the world's leading emitter of the gas. Without mitigation, China's CO2 emissions will rise by more than 50% in the next 15 years. Last November, in a joint announcement with the United States, China pledged that its CO2 emissions will peak by 2030. Existing policies are insufficient to make that happen.


China's toxic informal e-waste recycling
Journal of Cleaner Production
| June 01, 2015
Electronic waste or e-waste has been an increasingly severe problem over the last decade, and is the fastest growing waste stream in the world. China's inexpensive labour and manufacturing abilities have already made it “the world's factory” and for e-waste recycling it is no exception. Informal workers do the majority of e-waste collection and recycling in cities throughout China.


China's virtual air pollution transport
Atmospheric Physics and Chemistry | May 19, 2015
Substantial anthropogenic emissions from China have resulted in serious air pollution, and this has generated considerable academic and public concern. The physical transport of air pollutants in the atmosphere has been extensively investigated; however, understanding the mechanisms how the pollutant was transferred through economic and trade activities remains a challenge. For the first time, we quantified and tracked China's air pollutant emission flows embodied in interprovincial trade, using a multiregional input–output model framework.


Revealing the hidden health costs embodied in Chinese exports
Environmental Science & Technology | March 09, 2015
China emits a considerable amount of air pollutants when producing goods for export. Previous efforts have emphasized the magnitude of export-related emissions; however, their health consequences on the Chinese population have not been quantified. Here, we present an interdisciplinary study to estimate the health impact of export-related air pollution.


Four system boundaries for carbon accounts
Ecological Modelling | February 27, 2015
Knowing the carbon emission baseline of a region is a precondition for any mitigation effort, but the baselines are highly dependent on the system boundaries for which they are calculated. On the basis of sectoral energy statistics and a nested provincial and global multi-regional input–output model, we calculate and compare four different system boundaries for China's 30 provinces and major cities. 


Physical and virtual water transfers in China
PNAS | January 12, 2015
Water can be redistributed through, in physical terms, water transfer projects and virtually, embodied water for the production of traded products. Here, we explore whether such water redistributions can help mitigate water stress in China. This study, for the first time to our knowledge, both compiles a full inventory for physical water transfers at a provincial level and maps virtual water flows between Chinese provinces in 2007 and 2030.


Determinants of Stagnating Carbon Intensity in China
Nature Climate Change | October 04, 2014
China committed itself to reduce the carbon intensity of its economy (the amount of CO2 emitted per unit of GDP) by 40–45% during 2005–2020. Yet, between 2002 and 2009, China experienced a 3% increase in carbon intensity, though trends differed greatly among its 30 provinces. Decomposition analysis shows that sectoral efficiency gains in nearly all provinces were offset by movement towards a more carbon-intensive economic structure.


Lifting China’s Water Spell
Environmental Science & Technology | September 16, 2014
China is a country with significant but unevenly distributed water resources. The water stressed North stays in contrast to the water abundant and polluted South defining China’s current water environment. In this paper we use the latest available data sets and adopt structural decomposition analysis for the years 1992 to 2007 to investigate the driving forces behind the emerging water crisis in China.


A Hybrid-Unit Energy Input-Output Model
Journal of Industrial Ecology
| April 02, 2014
We develop a hybrid-unit energy input-output (I/O) model with a disaggregated electricity sector for China. The model replaces primary energy rows in monetary value, namely, coal, gas, crude oil, and renewable energy, with physical flow units in order to overcome errors associated with the proportionality assumption in environmental I/O analysis models. Model development and data use are explained and compared with other approaches in the field of environmental life cycle assessment.


The socioeconomic drivers of China's primary PM2.5
Environmental Research Letters
| February 19, 2014
We present an interdisciplinary study to measure the magnitudes of socioeconomic factors in driving primary PM2.5 emission changes in China between 1997–2010, by using a regional emission inventory as input into an environmentally extended input–output framework and applying structural decomposition analysis.


China’s international trade and air pollution in the United States
PNAS 
| February 04, 2014
International trade affects global air pollution and transport by redistributing emissions related to production of goods and services and by potentially altering the total amount of global emissions. Here we analyze the trade influences by combining an economic-emission analysis on China’s bilateral trade and atmospheric chemical transport modeling.

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China's energy consumption in the new normal
Earth's Future | June 15, 2018
Energy consumption is one of main reasons for global warming and highly correlated with economic development. As the largest energy consumer worldwide, China has entered a new economic development model—the “new normal.” This study aims to explore the pattern shift in China's energy consumption growth in this new development phase. We use structural decomposition analysis and environmentally extended input‐output analysis to decompose China's energy consumption changes during 2005–2012 into five factors: population, efficiency, production structure, consumption patterns, and consumption volume.


Rapid growth of petroleum coke consumption and its related emissions in China
Applied Energy | June 14, 2018
Petroleum coke, a non-environmentally friendly energy source, is gradually replacing other power fuels in China’s industrial enterprises because of its price advantage. Petroleum coke has high emission factors and thus emits more greenhouse gases (GHGs) and air pollutants than even raw coal. This study first examines the rapid growth of petroleum coke consumption in China since 2010 by industry sector and region and then estimates the petroleum coke-related emissions. We conclude that the total consumption of petroleum coke increased by 18.9% from 2010 to 2016 and that the industry final consumption for burning in boilers increased dramatically (by 158.2%).


Categorising virtual water transfers through China’s electric power sector
Applied Energy | June 04, 2018
Water consumption in thermoelectric and hydropower plants in China increased from 1.6 and 6.1 billion m3, respectively, to 3.8 and 14.6 billion m3 from 2002 to 2010. Using the concept of virtual water, we attribute to different electricity users the total water consumption by the electric power sector. From 2002 to 2010, virtual water embodied in the final consumption of electricity (hereinafter referred to as VWEF) increased from 1.90 to 7.35 billion m3, whilst virtual water in electricity used by industries (hereinafter referred to as VWEI) increased from 5.82 to 11.13 billion m3.


The global CO2 emission cost of geographic shifts in international sourcing
Energy Economics | May 18, 2018
In this paper we simulated the global direct CO2 emission cost of geographic shift of international sourcing for the period 1995–2011 by comparing the scenarios with and without geographic shift. Our simulations indicate that in 2011, had the share of trade by the sourcing economy remained at the level of 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2008 whereas the global final demand remained the same, global CO2 emissions in production processes would have been 2.8 Gt, 2.0 Gt, 1.3 Gt, and 540 Mt., respectively, lower than the actual emissions.


Energy and carbon intensity: A study on the cross-country industrial shift from China to India and SE Asia
Applied Energy | May 14, 2018
The potential relocation of various industrial sectors from China to India and countries of the SE Asian region presents low cost opportunities for manufacturers, but also risks rising for energy demand and CO2 emissions. A cross-country shift of industrial output would present challenges for controlling emissions since India and SE Asian countries present higher industrial emissions intensity than China. We find that although there is a convergence in emissions intensity in the machinery manufacturing and paper and pulp industries, there are significant variations in all other industrial sectors.


Estimating perfluorocarbon emission factors for industrial rare earth metal electrolysis
Resources, Conservation and Recycling | May 11, 2018
Rare earth (RE) metals have been widely applied in new materials, leading to their drastic production increase in the last three decades. In the production process featured by the molten-fluoride electrolysis technology, perfluorocarbon (PFC) emissions are significant and therefore deserve full accounting in greenhouse gas (GHG) emission inventories. Yet, in the ‘2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories’, no method currently exists to account for PFC emissions from rare earth metal production.


exported carbon” peak: patterns, drivers, and implications
Geophysical Research Letters | April 24, 2018
Over the past decade, China has entered a “new normal” phase in economic development, with its role in global trade flows changing significantly. This study estimates the driving forces of Chinese export‐embodied carbon emissions in the new normal phase, based on environmentally extended multiregional input‐output modeling and structural decomposition analysis. We find that Chinese export‐embodied CO2 emissions peaked in 2008 at a level of 1,657 million tones. The subsequent decline in CO2 emissions was mainly due to the changing structure of Chinese production.


Origin and Radiative Forcing of Black Carbon Aerosol: Production and Consumption Perspectives
Environmental science & technology | April 24, 2018
Air pollution, a threat to air quality and human health, has attracted ever-increasing attention in recent years. In addition to having local influence, air pollutants can also travel the globe via atmospheric circulation and international trade. Black carbon (BC), emitted from incomplete combustion, is a unique but representative particulate pollutant. This study tracked down the BC aerosol and its direct radiative forcing to the emission sources and final consumers using the global chemical transport model (MOZART-4), the rapid radiative transfer model for general circulation simulations (RRTM), and a multiregional input–output analysis (MRIO).


A review of air pollution impact on subjective well-being: Survey versus visual psychophysics
Journal of Cleaner Production | February 27, 2018
Air pollution is a worldwide environmental and health issue, especially in major developing countries. A recent World Health Organization report shows about 3 million deaths in the world in 2012 are due to ambient air pollution and China and India are the countries with the most severe challenge. Air pollution influences people's thought and experience of their lives directly by visual perceptions. This reduces people's subjective well-being (SWB) to a significant degree. Empirical researchers have made efforts to examine how self-reported well-being varies with air quality typically by survey method - matching SWB data with monitored air pollution data.


How modifications of China's energy data affect carbon mitigation targets
Energy Policy
| February 24, 2018
Frequent modifications to energy statistics have led to considerable uncertainty in China's ability to achieve its carbon mitigation targets. Here, we quantitatively measure the impact of energy data revisions on China's ability to achieve its mitigation targets. Our results indicate the following effects of data revisions: 1. Mitigation challenges have increased by 5%, and the achievement of national mitigation targets (as well as international pledges) might be postponed by two years. 2. Greater than expected carbon space or emission quota (from 22.94 to 31.31 Gt) will be obtained from 2015 to 2035.


Carbon emission imbalances and the structural paths of Chinese regions
Applied Energy
| February 20, 2018
As the Chinese regions become more and more connected to each other and foreign countries, this study aims to address carbon imbalance and outsourcing issues in China. Using a production-based carbon emission inventory and a China-global multi-regional input-output model, this study estimates the consumption-based carbon emissions in 30 Chinese regions in 2007 and 2010. Our results reveal that the carbon imbalances of most Chinese provinces and cities have decreased between 2007 and 2010, but disparities in the regional per capita carbon footprint have widened. 


Reconciling discrepancies in the source characterization of VOCs
Science of The Total Environment
| February 20, 2018
By utilizing a highly resolved speciated regional EI and a region-wide gridded volatile organic compounds (VOCs) speciation measurement campaign, we elucidated underlying factors for discrepancies between EI and RM and proposed ways for their interpretations with the aim to achieve a scientifically plausible source identification. Results showed that numbers of species, temporal and spatial resolutions used for comparison, photochemical loss of reactive species, potential missing sources in EI and tracers used in RM were important factors contributed to the discrepancies.


Co-mitigation of CO2 and PM2.5 pollution
Journal of Cleaner Production
| February 16, 2018
The simultaneous reduction of CO2 emissions and PM2.5 pollution while minimizing the total mitigation costs remains a crucial issue that must be resolved. Using a multi-objective analysis, we compared potential technology combinations based on various policy preferences and targets. Our results showed that policies designed to mitigate PM2.5 pollution have substantial co-benefits for CO2 emissions reductions.


GHGs from biomass burning in China from 2000 to 2012
Journal of Cleaner Production
| February 03, 2018
Greenhouse gases emissions from biomass burning have been given a little attention, especially the spatiotemporal features of biomass burning sources and greenhouse gases emissions have not been comprehensively uncovered. This research undertook IPCC bottom-up inventory guideline to estimate Chinese greenhouse gases emissions from biomass burning and applied geographical information system to reveal biomass burning emissions spatiotemporal features. The purposes were to quantify greenhouse gases emissions from various biomass burning sources in China.


China CO2 emission accounts 1997–2015
Scientific Data
| January 16, 2018
China is the world’s top energy consumer and CO2 emitter, accounting for 30% of global emissions. Compiling an accurate accounting of China’s CO2 emissions is the first step in implementing reduction policies. However, no annual, officially published emissions data exist for China. The current emissions estimated by academic institutes and scholars exhibit great discrepancies. The gap between the different emissions estimates is approximately equal to the total emissions of the Russian Federation (the 4th highest emitter globally) in 2011. 


Global super-polluting power plant units
Nature Sustainability | January 08, 2018
There are more than 30,000 biomass- and fossil-fuel-burning power plants now operating worldwide, reflecting a tremendously diverse infrastructure, which ranges in capacity from less than a megawatt to more than a gigawatt. In 2010, 68.7% of electricity generated globally came from these power plants, compared with 64.2% in 1990. Although the electricity generated by this infrastructure is vital to economic activity worldwide, it also produces more CO2 and air pollutant emissions than infrastructure from any other industrial sector.


Local strategies for China's carbon mitigation
Journal of Cleaner Production | January 08, 2018
This paper provides a systematic analysis that identifies the driving forces of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions of 286 Chinese prefecture-level cities in 2012. The regression analysis confirms the economic scale and structure effects on cities' CO2 emissions in China. If China's annual economic growth continues at the rate of 7%, CO2 emissions will increase by about 6% annually. In addition, climate conditions, urbanization and public investment in R&D are identified as important driving forces to increase the CO2 emissions of Chinese cities.


Chinese CO2 emission flows have reversed
Nature Communication | November 23, 2017
we show that emission flow patterns have changed greatly in both domestic and foreign trade since the financial crisis. Some economically less developed regions, such as Southwest China, have shifted from being a net emission exporter to being a net emission importer. In terms of foreign trade, emissions embodied in China’s exports declined from 2007 to 2012 mainly due to changes in production structure and efficiency gains, , while developing countries became the major destination of China’s export emissions.


Assessment of the economic impacts of heat waves 
Journal of Cleaner Production
| October 09, 2017
Extreme heat can not only induce health outcomes in terms of excess mortality and morbidity (hospital admissions) but can also cause productivity losses for self-paced indoor workers and capacity losses for outdoor workers due to occupational safety requirements. All of these effects can be translated into productive working time losses, thus creating a need to investigate the macroeconomic implications of heat waves on production supply chains. Indeed, industrial interdependencies are important for capturing the cascading effects of initial changes in factor inputs.


Flood footprint of the 2007 floods in the UK
Journal of Cleaner Production | September 09, 2017
International headlines over the last few years have been dominated by extreme weather events, and floods have been amongst the most frequent and devastating. These disasters represent high costs and functional disruptions to societies and economies. The consequent breakdown of the economic equilibrium exacerbates the losses of the initial physical damages and generates indirect costs that largely amplify the burden of the total damage. Neglecting indirect damages results in misleading results regarding the real dimensions of the costs and prevents accurate decision-making.


Energy and emission in Tibet and cites
Earth Future | August 09, 2017
Tibet Autonomous Region has historically been excluded from China's reported energy statistics, including those regarding CO2 emissions. In this paper, we estimate Tibet's energy consumption using limited online documents, and we calculate the 2014 energy-related and process-related COemissions of Tibet and its seven prefecture-level administrative divisions for the first time. 


Global emission growth after international crisis 
Energy Policy
 | August 04, 2017

In this paper, we decompose the driving forces of global CO2 emissions for the post-crisis era 2008–2011 from both production-based and consumption-based aspects. The results suggest that non-OECD economies have become the major drivers for the rapid global growth of CO2 emissions after the crisis. The increasing consumption and investment of non-OECD economies,  have largely contributed to global growth of CO2 emissions after 2009.


Consumption based water resources accounts
Journal of Cleaner Production | June 19, 2017
This work develops a method of multi-scale input-output analysis for the embodied water accounting of an economy. This method can distinguish between the different virtual water contents of imported and local products and is therefore capable of estimating the virtual water that is embodied in trade. As a simplified model, this method substantially minimizes the data requirements. With the support of averaged Eora global embodied water intensity databases for the world and Chinese economies, a three-scale embodied water input-output analysis of the Beijing economy in 2007 has been conducted. 


City level emission accounts: method and application
Journal of Cleaner Production
 | June 14, 2017

Cities contribute 85% of the total CO2 emissions in China and thus are considered as the key areas for implementing policies designed for climate change adaption and CO2 emission mitigation. However, the emission inventory construction of Chinese cities has not been well researched, mainly owing to the lack of systematic statistics and poor data quality. Focusing on this research gap, we developed a set of methods for constructing CO2 emissions inventories for Chinese cities based on energy balance table.  


Demand-driven air pollution in Guangdong
Applied Energy | July 11, 2017
Guangdong is one of many fast-developing regions in China that are confronting the challenges of air pollution mitigation and sustainable economic development. In this study, we used environmentally extended input-output analysis with well-established production-based emission inventories to develop a consumption-based emission inventory for seven pollutants in the years 2007 and 2012. 


Trade affects location of air pollution deaths
Nature | March 30, 2017
In a ground-breaking interdisciplinary analysis, we quantify the global links among consumption of goods and services, production of air pollution, atmospheric transport of that pollution, and human mortality due to the pollution. We find that roughly a quarter of air pollution deaths are related to goods produced in one region for consumption in another.


Pattern changes in determinants of Chinese emissions
Environmental Research Letters | March 29, 2017
Chinese economy has been recovering slowly from the global financial crisis, but it cannot achieve the same rapid development of the pre-recession period. Instead, the country has entered a new phase of economic development – a "new normal". We use a structural decomposition analysis (SDA) and environmental input-output analysis (IOA) to estimate the determinants of China's carbon emission changes during 2005-2012.  


Performance of China’s Emission-Trading Scheme
Engineering | February 28, 2017
China recently announced the launch of a nation-wide emission-trading scheme (ETS) starting in 2017 in order to help deliver its emission peak by 2030. A number of climate policies in China are ongoing, and require a full performance review, effective coordination, and appropriate implementation of planning and monitoring measures along with any newly added mechanisms.


Consumption-based black carbon of China's cities
Journal of Cleaner Production | February 27, 2017
We calculate the production-based and consumption-based emissions in 2012 in four Chinese megacities: Beijing, Shanghai, Tianjin and Chongqing. The results show that capital formation is the largest contributor, accounting for 37%–69% of consumption-based emissions. Approximately 44% of BC emissions related to goods consumed in Chongqing and more than 60% for Beijing, Shanghai and Tianjin occur outside of the city boundary.


Variations of China's emission estimates
Atmospheric Physics and Chemistry | January 25, 2017
The accuracy of China’s energy statistics is of great concern because it contributes greatly to the uncertainties in estimates of global emissions. This study attempts to improve the understanding of uncertainties in China’s energy statistics and evaluate their impacts on China’s emissions during the period of 1990–2013. The discrepancies between the national and provincial energy statistics were reduced after the three economic censuses conducted during this period, and converging uncertainties were found in 2013.


Multiple disasters management: Lessons from the Fukushima triple events
Economic Analysis and Policy | January 07, 2016
It has been five and a half years since the Great East Japan Earthquake (GEJE) in March 2011. This study summarize management and policy lessons from the GEJE. The recovery efforts that followed the triple disasters: the earthquake, tsunami and meltdown of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear plant are in progress. The experience of the GEJE and tsunami prompted the building of embankments throughout the Pacific coastal side of the Tohoku region. The Cabinet’s Reconstruction Headquarters used at least 19 trillion yen ($158 billion) for intensive reconstruction over five years through 2015.


Unequal household carbon footprints in China
Nature Climate Change | December 19, 2016
Households’ carbon footprints are unequally distributed among the rich and poor due to differences in the scale and patterns of consumption. We present distributional focused carbon footprints for Chinese households and use a carbon-footprint-Gini coefficient to quantify inequalities. We find that in 2012 the urban very rich, comprising 5% of population, induced 19% of the total carbon footprint from household consumption in China, with 6.4 tCO2/cap. 


Income-Based Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Nations
Environmental Science and Technology | December 09, 2016
Income-based accounting method reveals new GHG emission profiles for nations and sectors. The rapid development of mining industries drives income-based GHG emissions of resource-exporting nations (e.g., Australia, Canada, and Russia) during 1995–2009. Moreover, the rapid development of sectors producing basic materials and providing financial intermediation services drives income-based GHG emissions of developing nations. 

Global carbon uptake by cement carbonation
Nature Geoscience
 | November 21, 2016

Calcination of carbonate rocks during the manufacture of cement produced 5% of global CO2emissions from all industrial process and fossil-fuel combustion in 2013. Here, we use new and existing data on cement materials during cement service life, demolition, and secondary use of concrete waste to estimate regional and global COuptake between 1930 and 2013 using an analytical model describing carbonation chemistry.


Carbon emissions of Beijing in 2012
Environmental Research Letters | November 17, 2016
Income-based accounting method reveals new GHG emission profiles for nations and sectors. The rapid development of mining industries drives income-based GHG emissions of resource-exporting nations (e.g., Australia, Canada, and Russia) during 1995–2009. Moreover, the rapid development of sectors producing basic materials and providing financial intermediation services drives income-based GHG emissions of developing nations. 


Take responsibility for electronic-waste disposal
Nature
| August 03, 2016
The world is producing ever more electrical and electronic waste. The quantity of dumped computers, telephones, televisions and appliances doubled between 2009 and 2014, to 42 million tonnes per year globally. China processed about 70% of the world’s e-waste in 2012; the rest goes to India and other countries in eastern Asia and Africa, including Nigeria. Non-toxic components — such as iron, steel, copper and gold — are valuable, so are more frequently recycled than toxic ones.


Inter-regional trade flows in China
Journal of Geographical Sciences
| August 05, 2015
China has huge differences among its regions in terms of socio-economic development, industrial structure, natural resource endowments, and technological advancement. These differences have created complicated linkages between regions in China. In this study, building upon gravity model and location quotient techniques, we develop a sector-specific model to estimate inter-provincial trade flows, which is the base for making a multi-regional input-output table.


Consumption-based emission accounting for Chinese cities
Applied Energy 
| June 23, 2016
We employ an input-output model to calculate consumption-based CO2 emissions for thirteen Chinese cities and find substantial differences between production- and consumption-based accounting in terms of both overall and per capita carbon emissions. Urban consumption not only leads to carbon emissions within a city’s own boundaries but also induces emissions in other regions via interregional trade.


Electrical vehicles and emissions mitigation in China
Applied Energy
| June 11, 2016
Replacement of gasoline cars with EVs causes greater impacts on total gasoline production than on total electricity generation. The gasoline vehicle replacement with EVs, powered by 80% coal, has no effect on overall emissions. The CO2 emissions reduction in the petroleum sector is offset by the increase in CO2 emissions in the electricity sector, leaving the national CO2 emissions unchanged.


Socioeconomic Drivers of GHGs in the US
Environmental Science & Technology
 | June 08, 2016
This study investigates GHG emissions of sectors in the U.S. from production-based (direct emissions), consumption-based (upstream emissions driven by final consumption of products), and income-based (downstream emissions enabled by primary inputs of sectors) viewpoints. We also quantify relative contributions of socioeconomic factors to the US’s GHG emission changes during 1995–2009 from both the consumption and supply sides.


Driving forces of Chinese primary air pollution emissions
Journal of Cleaner Production
| May 11, 2016
This study provides an interdisciplinary study to investigate the key contributors driving air pollution emissions changes in China from 1997 to 2012, by applying the Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index method. The decomposition results are presented in both multiplicative and additive approaches to show the relative and absolute contribution of each factor in affecting emission changes. Changes in total particulate matter emissions are attributed to variations in primary particle, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides emissions.


Environment-economy tradeoff for Beijing regions
Applied Energy
 | April 19, 2016
The trade of goods among regions or nations associated with large environmental consequences. Yet balancing economic gains and environmental consequences induced by trade is still hindered by a lack of quantification of these two factors, especially for the environmental problems those are more locally oriented, such as the atmospheric pollution. Our results show that exports contributed 55–62% of BTH’s production emissions and 54% of its total value added.


New provincial CO2 emission inventories in China
Applied Energy
 | April 19, 2016
The study presents the changing emission-socioeconomic features of each provinces as well. The results indicate that Chinese provincial aggregated CO2 emissions calculated by the apparent energy consumption and updated emissions factors are coincident with the national emissions estimated by the same approach, which are 12.69% smaller than the one calculated by the traditional approach and IPCC default emission factors.


Revisiting global net emission transfers
Journal of Industrial Ecology
| March 11, 2016
processing exports in China involves relatively lower CO2 emissions than other production types for the same output levels. Therefore, if processing exports are not appropriately distinguished, net CO2 emission exports from China to other regions will be distorted; the relative bias occasionally reaches 15%. Net emission exports from regions other than China are also distorted, particularly for regions that use considerable Chinese processing exports.


Interprovincial Reliance for Improving Air Quality in China
Environmental Science & Technology
| March 07, 2016
The trade of goods among regions or nations associated with large environmental consequences. Yet balancing economic gains and environmental consequences induced by trade is still hindered by a lack of quantification of these two factors, especially for the environmental problems those are more locally oriented, such as the atmospheric pollution. Our results show that exports contributed 55–62% of BTH’s production emissions and 54% of its total value added.


Techno-economic drivers of CO2 emission changes
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews
| December 05, 2015
This paper extends the previous logarithmic mean Divisia index (LMDI) decomposition model by introducing three novel factors (R&D intensity, investment intensity, and R&D efficiency). The extended model not only considers the conventional drivers of energy-related industrial CO2 emissions, but also reflects the microeconomic effects of investment and R&D behaviors on emissions.


Air pollution and human health at Pearl River Delta
Environmental Research Letters
| October 08, 2015
Following a series of extreme air pollution events, the Chinese government released the Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan in 2013 (China's State Council 2013). The Action Plan sets clear goals for key regions (i.e. cities above the prefecture level, Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Province, the Yangtze River Delta and the Pearl River Delta) and establishes near-term control efforts for the next five years. However, the extent to which the Action Plan can direct local governments' activities on air pollution control remains unknown. 


Intercomparison of global MRIO databases
Economic Systems Research
| March 01, 2016
Global multiregional input–output (MRIO) tables constitute detailed accounts of the economic activity worldwide. Global trade models based on MRIO tables are being used to calculate important economic and environmental indicators such as value added in trade or the carbon footprint of nations. Such applications are highly relevant in international trade and climate policy negotiations, and consequently MRIO model results are being scrutinized for their accuracy and reproducibility.


China's export related emissions, and the responsibility issue
Energy Economics | August 28, 2015
China's CO2 emissions and those embodied in its exports have been extensively studied. One often neglected aspect is the prevalence of foreign-invested enterprises (FIEs) in China's exports, for which a substantial portion of benefits return to the investing countries. In this paper, we revisit China's export-related CO2 emission responsibilities by viewing them from a “new”, gross national income perspective.


Targeted opportunities to address the climate–trade dilemma in China
Nature Climate Change 
| September 28, 2015
International trade has become the fastest growing driver of global carbon emissions, with large quantities of emissions embodied in exports from emerging economies. International trade with emerging economies poses a dilemma for climate and trade policy: to the extent emerging markets have comparative advantages in manufacturing, such trade is economically efficient and desirable.



Reduced emission estimates in China
Nature | August 19, 2015
Estimates of Chinese emissions remain subject to large uncertainty; inventories of China’s total fossil fuel carbon emissions in 2008 differ by 0.3 gigatonnes of carbon, or 15 per cent. The primary sources of this uncertainty are conflicting estimates of energy consumption and emission factors. Here we re-evaluate China’s carbon emissions using updated and harmonized energy consumption and clinker production data and two new and comprehensive sets of measured emission factors for Chinese coal.


China’s rising hydropower demand challenges water sector
Scientific Reports
| July 09, 2015
Demand for hydropower is increasing, yet the water footprints (WFs) of reservoirs and hydropower, and their contributions to water scarcity, are poorly understood. Here, we calculate reservoir WFs (freshwater that evaporates from reservoirs) and hydropower WFs (the WF of hydroelectricity) in China based on data from 875 representative reservoirs (209 with power plants).


Steps to China’s carbon peak
Nature | June 17, 2015
In 2013, China released one-quarter of the global total of carbon dioxide for the year, and 1.5 times that released by the United States. It is the world's leading emitter of the gas. Without mitigation, China's CO2 emissions will rise by more than 50% in the next 15 years. Last November, in a joint announcement with the United States, China pledged that its CO2 emissions will peak by 2030. Existing policies are insufficient to make that happen.


China's toxic informal e-waste recycling
Journal of Cleaner Production
| June 01, 2015
Electronic waste or e-waste has been an increasingly severe problem over the last decade, and is the fastest growing waste stream in the world. China's inexpensive labour and manufacturing abilities have already made it “the world's factory” and for e-waste recycling it is no exception. Informal workers do the majority of e-waste collection and recycling in cities throughout China.


China's virtual air pollution transport
Atmospheric Physics and Chemistry | May 19, 2015
Substantial anthropogenic emissions from China have resulted in serious air pollution, and this has generated considerable academic and public concern. The physical transport of air pollutants in the atmosphere has been extensively investigated; however, understanding the mechanisms how the pollutant was transferred through economic and trade activities remains a challenge. For the first time, we quantified and tracked China's air pollutant emission flows embodied in interprovincial trade, using a multiregional input–output model framework.


Revealing the hidden health costs embodied in Chinese exports
Environmental Science & Technology | March 09, 2015
China emits a considerable amount of air pollutants when producing goods for export. Previous efforts have emphasized the magnitude of export-related emissions; however, their health consequences on the Chinese population have not been quantified. Here, we present an interdisciplinary study to estimate the health impact of export-related air pollution.


Four system boundaries for carbon accounts
Ecological Modelling | February 27, 2015
Knowing the carbon emission baseline of a region is a precondition for any mitigation effort, but the baselines are highly dependent on the system boundaries for which they are calculated. On the basis of sectoral energy statistics and a nested provincial and global multi-regional input–output model, we calculate and compare four different system boundaries for China's 30 provinces and major cities. 


Physical and virtual water transfers in China
PNAS | January 12, 2015
Water can be redistributed through, in physical terms, water transfer projects and virtually, embodied water for the production of traded products. Here, we explore whether such water redistributions can help mitigate water stress in China. This study, for the first time to our knowledge, both compiles a full inventory for physical water transfers at a provincial level and maps virtual water flows between Chinese provinces in 2007 and 2030.


Determinants of Stagnating Carbon Intensity in China
Nature Climate Change | October 04, 2014
China committed itself to reduce the carbon intensity of its economy (the amount of CO2 emitted per unit of GDP) by 40–45% during 2005–2020. Yet, between 2002 and 2009, China experienced a 3% increase in carbon intensity, though trends differed greatly among its 30 provinces. Decomposition analysis shows that sectoral efficiency gains in nearly all provinces were offset by movement towards a more carbon-intensive economic structure.


Lifting China’s Water Spell
Environmental Science & Technology | September 16, 2014
China is a country with significant but unevenly distributed water resources. The water stressed North stays in contrast to the water abundant and polluted South defining China’s current water environment. In this paper we use the latest available data sets and adopt structural decomposition analysis for the years 1992 to 2007 to investigate the driving forces behind the emerging water crisis in China.


A Hybrid-Unit Energy Input-Output Model
Journal of Industrial Ecology
| April 02, 2014
We develop a hybrid-unit energy input-output (I/O) model with a disaggregated electricity sector for China. The model replaces primary energy rows in monetary value, namely, coal, gas, crude oil, and renewable energy, with physical flow units in order to overcome errors associated with the proportionality assumption in environmental I/O analysis models. Model development and data use are explained and compared with other approaches in the field of environmental life cycle assessment.


The socioeconomic drivers of China's primary PM2.5
Environmental Research Letters
| February 19, 2014
We present an interdisciplinary study to measure the magnitudes of socioeconomic factors in driving primary PM2.5 emission changes in China between 1997–2010, by using a regional emission inventory as input into an environmentally extended input–output framework and applying structural decomposition analysis.


China’s international trade and air pollution in the United States
PNAS 
| February 04, 2014
International trade affects global air pollution and transport by redistributing emissions related to production of goods and services and by potentially altering the total amount of global emissions. Here we analyze the trade influences by combining an economic-emission analysis on China’s bilateral trade and atmospheric chemical transport modeling.

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